Fauvism

 

1898 – 1920

Fauvism is one f the earliest avant-garde art movements, and greatly influenced German Expressionism, and known for their bold colors and techniques.

These movements centered on the expression of feeling through intense color.

Fauvism and Expressionism

Fauvism and Expressionism

The Fauves worked this through clashing color, distorted forms, alien perspectives, rough brushstrokes, and flat linear patterns on canvases that weren’t always completely covered.

The Expressionists took these ideas and worked in violent colors to show emotional angst, abstracted their forms, and attempted to express modern and contemporary ideas through emotional subject matter.

These two movements  – fauvism and expressionism – were some of the first examples of abstract art, only barely predating Cubism, another influential modern art movement.

Fauvism

While Fauvism did start in 1898, it was really only a movement per se between 1904-1908 and had only three exhibitions.

Fauvism Self Portrait

Fauvism has its early roots in the teachings of an inspirational yet controversial professor at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris, Gustave Moureau.

He was a Symbolist painter (a movement correlating to the gothic and romantic bent of literature at the time) and until his death in 1898 and Henri Matisse’s leadership in 1904, he was considered its philosophical leader.

Many of the Fauvist movement’s artists were his students. He taught originality, expression through color, and to have an open and broad mind. Matisse said, “He disturbed our complacency.”

Matisse was later inspired by a visit to John Peter Russell, an Impressionist painter living on an island off the coast of France.

Henri Matisse – The Beast on the Loose

This was the first time Matisse had seen Impressionist work and the style shocked him. This was in 1896, while Matisse was still a student of Moureau. He left the island because he “could stand” to look at the impressionist works any longer, but returned a year later ready to let go of his own muted palette and learn color theory and the use of the brighter colors preferred by Impressionists.

“The aim of painting is not to reflect history, because this can be found in books. We have a higher conception. Through it, the artist expresses his inner vision.” – Matisse

He claimed to have learned color theory from Russell.

Russell also gave him a gift of a Van Gogh painting, Van Gogh had been a friend of his.

The philosophical direction focus on breaking the boundaries of the mind learned from Moreau and the bold use of color learned from Russell set a foundation in the style of Matisse.

Matisse worked with Andre Derain for the summer of 1905 in a Mediterranean village where they created a body of work to show at the Salon d’Automne

A critic, Louis Vauxcelles, did not appreciate the wild colors of their paintings or the bold and uncongenial execution and declared the artists les Fauves, French for “the wild beasts”. Matisse and Derain were amused and happily adopted the moniker.

Fauvism – Blue Nude

Although much of their work was derided at the time and seemed to the general audience to be the work of untalented artists, wealthy collectors like Gertrude Stein brought validity to the movement in the eyes of critics.

Fauvism and Expressionism – Key Differences and Highlights:

  • Fauvism was originated in France in the early 20th century, while Expressionism origin simultaneously in Germany and New York
  • The Fauves were spontaneous with bright, vivid and colorful strokes, while expressionists used were thoughtful and well planned to ensure that they reflect their inner senses and emotions effectively.
  • Fauves enjoyed and promoted collaboration, for which one reason there is a lot of debate around calling it as an art movement.
  • Famous fauvism artists were Matisse and Paul Signac. Famous expressionists are Edward Munch and Emily Carr
  • Maurice de Vlaminck “loved Van Gogh more than his own father” and after seeing his worked ditched his palette and began squeezing his paint right onto the canvas
  • The first true Fauvist painting was completed by Matisse in the summer of 1904. The elements of the painting are the first to coalesce in the Fauvist style.
  • The first four members of Die Brücke were architecture students that were interested in art and wanted to create a bridge they would form with the art of the future. The name of the group translates to “The Bridge”.

Top Fauvism Works:

  • Woman with a Hat by Henri Matisse
  • The River Seine at Chatou by Maurice de Vlaminick
  • Le Bonheur de Vivre by Henri Matisse
  • Luxe, Calme et Volupte by Henri Matisse
  • Blue Nude – Henri Matisse
  • Portrait of Henri Matisse – Andre Derain
  • La Danse – Henri Matisse

Art History Movements (Order by the period of origin)

Dawn of Man – BC 10

Paleolithic Art (Dawn of Man – 10,000 BC), Neolithic Art (8000 BC – 500 AD), Egyptian Art (3000 BC - 100 AD), Ancient Near Eastern Art (Neolithic era – 651 BC),  Bronze and Iron Age Art (3000 BC – Debated), Aegean Art (2800-100 BC), Archaic Greek Art (660-480 BC), Classical Greek Art (480-323 BC ), Hellenistic Art (323 BC – 27 BC), Etruscan Art (700 - 90 BC)

1st Century to 10th Century

Roman Art (500 BC – 500 AD), Celtic Art. Parthian and Sassanian Art (247 BC – 600 AD), Steppe Art (9000BC – 100 AD), Indian Art (3000 BC - current), Southeast Asian Art (2200 BC - Present), Chinese and Korean Art,  Japanese Art (11000 BC – Present),  Early Christian Art (260-525 AD,  Byzantine Art (330 – 1453 AD), Irish Art (3300 BC - Present), Anglo Saxon Art (450 – 1066 AD), Viking Art (780 AD-1100AD), Islamic Art (600 AD-Present)

10thCentury to 15th Century

Pre Columbian Art (13,000 BC – 1500 AD), North American Indian and Inuit Art (4000 BC - Present), African Art (),  Oceanic Art (1500 – 1615 AD), Carolingian Art (780-900 AD), Ottonian Art (900 -1050 AD), Romanesque Art (1000 AD – 1150 AD), Gothic Art (1100 – 1600 AD), The survival of Antiquity ()

Art History - 15th century onwards

Renaissance Style (1300-1700), The Northern Renaissance (1500 - 1615), Mannerism (1520 – 17th Century), The Baroque (1600-1700), The Rococo (1600-1700), Neo Classicism (1720 - 1830),  Romanticism (1790 -1890), Realism (1848 - Present), Impressionism (1860 - 1895), Post-Impressionism (1886 - 1904), Symbolism and Art Nouveau (1880 -1910), Fauvism , Expressionism (1898 - 1920), Cubism  . Futurism (1907-1928 )Abstract Art (1907 – Present Day), Dadasim,. Surrealism (1916 - 1970),. Latin American Art (1492 - Present, Modern American Art (1520 – 17th Century), Postwar European Art (1945 - 1970), Australian Art (28,000 BC - Present), South African Art (98,000 BC - Present)

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Fauvism  – Major Artworks

Art History Movements (Order by the period of origin)

Dawn of Man – BC 10

Paleolithic Art (Dawn of Man – 10,000 BC), Neolithic Art (8000 BC – 500 AD), Egyptian Art (3000 BC - 100 AD), Ancient Near Eastern Art (Neolithic era – 651 BC),  Bronze and Iron Age Art (3000 BC – Debated), Aegean Art (2800-100 BC), Archaic Greek Art (660-480 BC), Classical Greek Art (480-323 BC ), Hellenistic Art (323 BC – 27 BC), Etruscan Art (700 - 90 BC)

1st Century to 10th Century

Roman Art (500 BC – 500 AD), Celtic Art. Parthian and Sassanian Art (247 BC – 600 AD), Steppe Art (9000BC – 100 AD), Indian Art (3000 BC - current), Southeast Asian Art (2200 BC - Present), Chinese and Korean Art,  Japanese Art (11000 BC – Present),  Early Christian Art (260-525 AD,  Byzantine Art (330 – 1453 AD), Irish Art (3300 BC - Present), Anglo Saxon Art (450 – 1066 AD), Viking Art (780 AD-1100AD), Islamic Art (600 AD-Present)

10thCentury to 15th Century

Pre Columbian Art (13,000 BC – 1500 AD), North American Indian and Inuit Art (4000 BC - Present), African Art (),  Oceanic Art (1500 – 1615 AD), Carolingian Art (780-900 AD), Ottonian Art (900 -1050 AD), Romanesque Art (1000 AD – 1150 AD), Gothic Art (1100 – 1600 AD), The survival of Antiquity ()

Art History - 15th century onwards

Renaissance Style (1300-1700), The Northern Renaissance (1500 - 1615), Mannerism (1520 – 17th Century), The Baroque (1600-1700), The Rococo (1600-1700), Neo Classicism (1720 - 1830),  Romanticism (1790 -1890), Realism (1848 - Present), Impressionism (1860 - 1895), Post-Impressionism (1886 - 1904), Symbolism and Art Nouveau (1880 -1910), Fauvism , Expressionism (1898 - 1920), Cubism  . Futurism (1907-1928 )Abstract Art (1907 – Present Day), Dadasim,. Surrealism (1916 - 1970),. Latin American Art (1492 - Present, Modern American Art (1520 – 17th Century), Postwar European Art (1945 - 1970), Australian Art (28,000 BC - Present), South African Art (98,000 BC - Present)